Annual leave entitlement
The Working Time Regulations 1998 (the “Regulations”) provide that workers are entitled to 5.6 weeks’ paid annual leave per year (prorated for part time employees). This is made up of a minimum of 20 days paid annual leave (Basic Leave) with a further 1.6 weeks as permitted under domestic legislation (in other words, bank holidays).
Under the Regulation, workers must take their Basic Leave entitlement in the leave year in which it is due, otherwise the entitlement will be lost. The 1.6 weeks of additional leave can be carried forward into the next leave year if there is a “relevant agreement” (for example, where it is provided for in an employment contract or with the employer’s consent).
Employers are under an obligation to give workers an effective opportunity to take holiday in the leave year in which it accrues and this is where COVID-19 is presenting some challenges.
Changes made to the Regulations in the wake of the COVID-19 epidemic
The government has announced that the Regulations will be amended so that workers can carry over up to 4 weeks’ holiday into the next two holiday years (so, 2021 and 2022). This will only apply where, by the end of the year, it has not been “reasonably practicable for the worker to take some or all of their annual leave as a result of the effects of Coronavirus (including on the worker, the employer or the wider economy or society)”.
Employers can ask employees to take annual leave during a period of furlough
Under the Regulations an employer has the right to tell employees when to take annual leave.
The guidance available from ACAS suggests that an employer could, for example, shut for a week and tell everyone to use their holiday entitlement. The guidance goes on:
“If the employer decides to do this, they must tell staff at least twice as many days before as the amount of days they need people to take.
For example, if they want to close for 5 days, they should tell everyone at least 10 days before.”
Where you cannot take holiday due to coronavirus
Complications will occur where an employee is unable to take annual leave – for example, in circumstances where they have contracted COVID-19. The guidance on this gives three examples of where a worker “cannot take holiday due to coronavirus”, namely:
Where any of the above applies, employers will need to give serious consideration to carrying over holiday in accordance with the amended Regulations.
Employees can make requests for annual leave whilst on furlough
ACAS guidance is very clear on this. It reads as follows:
“If an employee or worker is temporarily sent home because there’s no work and the employer intends to claim for their wages under the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (‘furloughed’), they can still request and take their holiday in the usual way. This includes bank holidays.
Employees and workers must get their usual pay in full, for any holidays they take”.
The Government will reimburse holiday pay
The guidance confirms employers can claim for an annual leave furlough day using the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme. As this would be capped at 80%/£2500 per month employers would in effect be ‘topping up’ for those annual leave days by paying the difference between that and normal pay to the relevant employee/s.
Employees may opt to use their holiday in certain circumstances
The government guidance regarding furloughed employees more generally is that they will have the same rights as they did previously, suggesting that employees will continue to accrue annual leave whilst on furlough. This will no doubt come as welcome news to employees who may opt to use their holiday and receive their usual rate of pay, rather than a potentially reduced pay period whilst on furlough.
This is an update on annual leave and furlough guidance as of 27th April 2020.